In Vitro Fertilization (IVF)

What is In Vitro Fertilization (IVF)?

In vitro fertilization (IVF) involves the fertilization of an egg by a sperm outside of the body.  This is a well-established treatment for infertility thanks to its efficiency and effectiveness in leading to a pregnancy.  In Ontario, there is government funding available for In vitro fertilization (IVF) cycles for those concerned about in vitro treatment cost.

When to Consider In Vitro Fertilization (IVF)? 

IVF might be an option if you have any of the following situations:

  • Blocked or nonfunctional fallopian tubes

  • Decreased ovarian reserve 

  • Advanced reproductive age 

  • Genetic testing of embryos (PGT)

  • Male partner has a very low sperm count

  • Alternative treatments have failed

In Vitro Fertilization (IVF) Process

Ovarian Stimulation & Cycle Monitoring

This phase takes an average of 10 to 14 days and involves daily injectable medications comprised of hormones to grow, recruit and mature multiple follicles. Frequent blood work and ultrasound tests at the clinic are needed to monitor follicular growth and hormone levels. Once the follicles reach an adequate size, an injection is used to induce ovulation and the Egg Retrieval is scheduled.

Egg Retrieval

This is a procedure performed in the operating room by a physician, where the eggs are removed from the follicles within the ovaries. The patient is placed under conscious sedation to provide pain relief and comfort throughout the whole procedure.


Once the egg retrieval is done, the eggs are combined with the sperm sample in hopes of achieving fertilization. There are two different methods of fertilization for in vitro fertilization in Canada:

Method #1
Conventional In-Vitro Fertilization - An optimal concentration of sperm is placed into a dish containing the eggs, and it is up to the sperm to penetrate the egg and fertilize naturally.

Method #2
Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection (ICSI) - Lab techniques are used to select one sperm to inject directly into the egg. This guarantees that the sperm will penetrate the egg, but it does not guarantee that it will fertilize.

Embryo culture

The embryos are stored in incubators and monitored for fertilization after 24H, then again on day 3 and 5 for progression. Once they have reached a blastocyst stage, the embryos can be transferred or frozen. Transfer can also be done on day 3, but this is less frequent.

Pre-Implantation Genetic Testing (PGT)

Prior to an embryo freezing, patients have the option to genetically test their embryos. PGT can screen for chromosomal abnormalities (i.e. Down Syndrome), structural rearrangements (i.e. balanced translocations) and single-gene genetic disorders (i.e. Cystic Fibrosis, Sickle Cell Anemia). Transferring a chromosomally normal embryo increases your chances of pregnancy and greatly decreases the risk of miscarriage during in vitro fertilization.

Embryo Transfer

A fresh, untested embryo transfer can occur 3 or 5 days post egg retrieval. If the conditions are not optimal for embryo transfer or if a patient chooses to pursue genetic testing, the embryos are frozen and stored for a future transfer date.

The embryo transfer is a procedure done by a physician with ultrasound guidance. The embryo is placed in a thin, flexible catheter, inserted through the cervix, and released near the top of the uterus. The transfer procedure is painless and takes around 10-15 minutes to complete. You will be required to maintain a full bladder for this procedure.

Natural IVF

Natural cycle IVF is ideal for patients who want a more natural approach and prefer to avoid medications or for women with delicate ovaries.  Click here for more information. 

How to get started

Fill out our form and we will be in touch to schedule an appointment for you with one of our Tripod Fertility physicians.  


Standard Fertility Assessment Standard Fertility Assessment Gaining awareness of your fertility health gives you and your physician an indication if future testing is needed. Your physician will start by taking a thorough medical history. Learn More Cycle Monitoring Cycle Monitoring Cycle Monitoring involves blood work and ultrasounds during the first half of your menstrual cycle to follow hormone levels and the growth of follicle(s). Learn More Ovulation induction and  (COH) Ovulation induction and (COH) Ovulation induction is the action of bringing about ovulation through oral (Letrozole, Clomiphene Citrate, Tamoxifen) or injectable hormonal medication. Learn More In Vitro Fertilitization (IVF) In Vitro Fertilitization (IVF) In vitro fertilization (IVF) is a method of assisted reproduction that involves the removal of eggs from the body, and the combining of eggs and sperm in the embryology laboratory to form embryos. Learn More Natural IVF Natural cycles, Natural IVF, and Minimal stimulation IVF
This form of treatment is an alternative that can be less time-consuming, and a less expensive assisted reporduction solution. Learn More
Intrauterine Insemination (IUI) Intrauterine Insemination (IUI) Intrauterine Insemination (IUI) is the process of inserting a sample of washed/concentrated sperm (partner or donor) directly into the uterus. Learn More Hormonal Blood Work Hormonal blood work Blood work can tell us a lot about what is going inside your body, and can give us clues as to what may be causing infertility. These results can help us create the best treatment plan for you. Learn More Semen Analysis Semen Analysis Semen analysis is often recommended when couples are having problems getting pregnant. The sperm test will help a physician determine if there are any issues with male's infertility. Learn More Ultrasound and Sonohysterogram Ultrasound and Sonohysterogram A pelvic ultrasound is usually performed at the beginning of the menstrual cycle to appreciate the ovarian antral follicle count, the uterus anatomy and any other pelvic organ findings. Learn More Immuno-Fertility Immune Testing
& Treatment (Immuno-Fertility)
A strong, balanced immune system is vital in pregnancy as it helps the uterus accept and nurture the embryo. The field of reproductive immunology includes immune treatment and testing. Learn More
Fertility Preservation Fertility Preservation Fertility preservation involves the freezing and storage of eggs, sperm, or embryos in hopes of creating biological children in the future. Learn More Family Planning Family Planning Patients undergoing treatment through the third party program can expect integrative, personalized guidance and clear information throughout the third party reproduction process. Learn More LGBTQIA+ Family Planning LGBTQIA+ Family Planning Our top priority is to provide all patients, regardless of sexual and gender orientation, an inclusive, welcoming, and safe environment to pursue their desire of building a family. Learn More Prenatal Care Prenatal Care Prenatal Care and prenatal services are offered to our patients who have become pregnant through our fertility services, as well as for other patients referred to us by their community family practitioner or obstetrician. Learn More Gynecology Consultation and Care Gynecology Consultation and Care Our gynecological care provides personalized, multidisciplinary patient care for women with gynecological concerns. Learn More

From Day 1, Dr.'s Dzineku and Roumain were very approachable, knowledgeable, professional, resourceful and genuine.